Location of the Ten "Horns" (Kings), Part I of II
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Part II of the study continues here .
While the Jews were in their 70 year captivity in Babylon, Daniel identified and interpreted a dream that the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar had. Nebuchadnezzar would not even tell what the dream was; he required that the dream itself AND the interpretation be presented to him by a "wise" man. None of the King's "wise" men could give the dream and the interpretation. They told the king he had to give them the dream first. The king refused to give the dream and was going to have all the "wise" men killed, including Daniel. Daniel then asked the Lord and the Lord showed Daniel the dream and the interpretation of the dream.
One thing to note about this is that Daniel later has his own, similar vision which revealed more about the future endtimes. Nebuchadnezzar's dream is revealed to a non-Jew, a Gentile. Therefore, Nebuchadnezzar's dream is the Gentile world view of the endtime events. Whereas, Daniel's vision was the same timeframe from the viewpoint of the Jews.
Since we are discussing the TEN KINGS here, let's focus on the "feet" of the image and its TEN "toes." The "toes" are the last part of the Nebuchadnezzar's image described. The image is described from top to bottom in chronological order. The head of the image was the Baylonian empire, followed by Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome. The "toes" of the image are for the endtimes. Therefore, the image represents Gentile "world" kingdoms which were to arise in the future. The last "world" kingdom (before the second coming of Christ) would be the kingdom represented by the "toes." The number TEN is not specifically mentioned in Nebuchadnezzar's dream and interpretation, but, it is implicit in the "toes."
Daniel says to King Nebuchadnezzar-
Daniel 2:28 But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these;
Daniel 2:30 But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but for their sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.
Daniel 2:31 Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible.
Daniel 2:32 This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,
Daniel 2:33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay.
Daniel Explains Nebuchadnezzar's Dream and the Interpreptation
Daniel 2:34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces.
The "stone" that was "cut out without hands" Is Jesus Christ. To read scriptural evidence for this go here .
It is at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ when Jesus destroys the last vestige of "world" Gentile kingdoms, the kingdom is broken in pieces by being smitten on its feet.
Daniel 2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.
Thus, Jesus Christ, at the second coming destroys the whole image forever and Jesus' own kingdom ("a great mountain") fills the "whole earth."
Daniel 2:41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.
What do we know about the last "world" kingdom? Please remember that though the third kingdom, for example, (of brass) is said to rule over "all the earth", in Daniel 2:39, this kingdom (Alexander the Great's) "potentially" ruled the earth. It did not in fact occupy and control the entire earth. This will be true of the last kingdom as well.
Daniel 2:42 And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.
Even though this last kingdom is strong, it will have aspects to it that make it weak. The "weak" characteristic is not applied to any of the other kingdoms. Therefore, the last kingdom will not be a monarchy with a uniform iron clad rule over all the citizenry as the previous kingdom's had. It will have elements of "democracy" in that it will consist of somewhat ineffective joint rule by ten kings.
Daniel 2:43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.
The two elements of the kingdom, the iron and the clay, the strong and the weak, will mingle with the population of this kingdom; but the two elements will not "cleave." Thus, neither the autocratic, dictatorial nature nor the "democratic" nature of the kingdom will prevail. A good example of this type scenario might be post-war Iraq of June 2003. "Democracy" is being attempted to avoid another dictatorship. An attempt is being made to unify a country made of Shiites, Sunnis, and Kurds. This unification was achieved previously only by a dictatorship. The "they" that mingle themselves with the "seed of men" (the different ethnic factions) apparently are the TEN KINGS because we read in the next verse that
Daniel 2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.
In the days of THESE KINGS (apparently referring to the "themselves" of verse 43) is WHEN God shall set up His Kingdom that will stand forever.
Daniel 2:45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.
Jesus Christ, the "stone cut out without hands", destroys the Gentile world kingdoms. It is worth noting that everyone of the kingdoms in the Gentile's (Nebuchadnezzar) vision were nations that captured the Jews: Babylon, Media-Persia, and Alexander the Great's Grecian empire. Taking the Jewish nation "captive" should occur with the TEN KINGS as well if the pattern holds true.
Daniel Has Own Vision - The Same Timeframe from the Jewish Viewpoint
Daniel 7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.
Daniel 7:8 I considered the horns , and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things .
This "little horn" as we will see is the first mention of the antichrist by Daniel.
Daniel 7:9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire.
Daniel 7:19 Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet;
Daniel 7:20 And of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more stout than his fellows.
Daniel 7:21 I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;
Daniel 7:22 Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.
The "little horn" prevailed against the saints of God until Jesus returns. But, when Jesus does return there will be a kingdom with ten kings. The "little horn" is also called "another" in the next verse.
Daniel 7:24 And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.
The "little horn" therefore will rise in significant power after the ten kings. From the verse above, Dan 7:8, we learned that the "little horn" rises "among then" (the ten kings). The "little horn" is then part of a loose confederation of kings. He is part of them, from their same reference point. There is no doubt he is the antichrist because he
Daniel 7:25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time (1 year) and times (2 years) and the dividing of time (1/2 year). This is a total of 3 and one half years - the exact time of the "continuance" of the antichrist.
In other words the persecution of the saints is to last 3 and one half years when worship of the antichrist is enforced through the mark of the beast program. (See Revelation 13). The world will be faced with awful choices at that time .
Daniel Has a 2nd Vision - the Little Horn is from a Part of Alexander the Great's Kingdom
Daniel again sees the "little horn" which grows from his home base in three directions. To read a thorough study of the location of the empire of antichrist, read this.
Daniel 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east , and toward the pleasant land.
From what EXACT geographic location is the antichrist "waxing great?"
If this kingdom waxes EXCEEDING GREAT,
TOWARD THE SOUTH,
and the PLEASANT LAND (Israel/Palestine).
Follow me here: these directions point to 3 mutually exclusive compass directions. The kingdom is growing in THREE (3) directions. If the kingdom was West of Israel, EAST and the PLEASANT LAND would be the same direction. Therefore, the kingdom is NOT west of Israel. If the kingdom was North of Israel, the SOUTH and PLEASANT LAND would be redundant. Therefore, the kingdom is not north of Israel. This leaves SOUTH of Israel and EAST of Israel as our 2 choices. We have to eliminate the SOUTH of Israel because the antichrist attacks and conquers the king of the south - Egypt .
This leaves us with EAST of Israel as the place of the origin of the antichrist.
In case there is any doubt that this is the antichrist, we read in the next verse that the "little horn" takes away the daily sacrifice.
This corresponds exactly to the acts described by Jesus in Mathew 24 and in Daniel 9:27 - the abomination. Read this for a detailed description.
Daniel 8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.
To make sure Daniel understands his own vision, the angel Gabriel is told to show Daniel the meaning of the vision.
Daniel 8:16 And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.
Daniel is told when the vision is for - "the time of the end."
Daniel 8:17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.
Daniel 8:19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be.
Daniel is shown that the Media-Persia empire will succeed the Kingdom of Babylon.
Daniel 8:20 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.
Daniel is then shown that Alexander the Great, the king of Grecia, will conquer the Medes and the Persians.
Daniel 8:21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.
Daniel is shown that Alexander the Great's Kingdom is divided into 4 parts, which is exactly what happened.
Daniel 8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.
Now here is another key, in the LATTER TIME of the successor to this kingdom, the anitchrist will arise.
Daniel 8:23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.
Daniel 8:24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.
The antichrist destroys by "PEACE". An extensive discussion of this "PEACE" is found here . In this discussion, you see that the antichrist enforces a "PEACE" covenant. We know that (from the New Testament) when they say "PEACE and safety then cometh sudden destruction" - the events of the Book of Revelation.
Daniel 8:25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many : he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.
To see that the antichrist rises from Assyria, an ancient land that WAS conquered by Alexander the Great is shown here .
Further, it is clear from the following scriptures that the antichrist IS an "Assyrian".
When the Lord performs his WHOLE WORK on Jerusalem, he will punish the antichrist-
Isaiah 10:12 Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria , and the glory of his high looks.
A present day Assyrian king is described here .
Isaiah 10:24 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts, O my people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt.
So, we have shown the antichrist arises out of Assyria, a land conquered by Alexander the Great, and we have learned that the "the little horn" will arise AMONG the TEN KINGS in a "weak" confederation of states whose eventual purpose will be to enforce a Mideast "PEACE."
Consequently, we must conclude that the TEN KINGS are from the same vicinity (slightly enlarged) of the antichrist himself.
Where are these nations? In general they are - Egypt, Western Iran, Jordan, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Lebanon, Southern Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia. Out of these (or nearbys) will arise ten kings.
Three of these will be a disruption to the covenant and have to be " plucked up by the roots." A lengthy discussion of this topic is found here . We already see signs of "regime change" such as occured in Iraq. This is just the beginning. Remember, the first act of the antichrist in Rev 6 is "conquering and to conquer". See this discussion on fighting terror. See also the "crown" to be given the antichrist . See also the wars of the antichrist .
There is another way of interpreting the expression, AMONG the TEN KINGS, Daniel 7:8.
The expression may not be only geographic, but, may be an expression of sponsorship and dialogue. Therefore, even though we know that the antichrist is an Assyrian and arises from this geographic territory, his sponsors could be from BOTH the eastern and western portions of what was the old Roman empire. The Roman Empire divided into East and West as represented by the legs of the image of Nebuchadnezzar. Therefore, it is not inconceivable that sponsorship of the antichrist could come from 5 "toes" in the East and five "toes" in the West.
Interestingly enough, however, the Strong's concordance word # 0997 is said to be closely associated with the word # 0996, which may be translated as "between" as well as "among ." " Among" or "between" has the connotation of the "midst".
In the geographic sense, this could mean there are kings to the East, West, North, and South, of the little horn . If the little horn is east of Israel (as we showed above), there are potential Kings as follows (omitting Europe proper):
Egypt (south of the little horn), Western Iran (east of the little horn), Jordan (at or near the "midst"), Iraq (east of the little horn ), Libya (west of the little horn ), Syria(west of the little horn), Lebanon (west of the little horn), Southern Turkey(north of the little horn), Israel (Jerusalem is less than 50 miles from Jordan's capital), Saudi Arabia(south and east of the little horn ).
Even though the United States is presently the dominant force in the Mideast, this may not be the case at the time the ten kings (aka "horns" and "toes") come to power. We know from Rev 17:12 that the ten kings receive power as kings one hour with the beast (antichrist).
Therefore, these kings receive power AFTER the rapture. The efforts begun in Iraq by the United States may well be continued by others (as US policy claims as its objective, "democracy"). This could well mean that after the Rapture, which assuredly affects the US proportionately more than other parts of the world, the role of the United States will be greatly diminished.
From the following website
We read of an original agreement of 2001
Four Arab states agree on free trade zone
By Souhail Karam
RABAT, May 8 (Reuters) - Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia agreed on Tuesday to set up a free trade zone ahead of the 2010 target for trade barriers to end in the Euro-Mediterranean area.
"Morocco, Jordan, Tunisia and Egypt have decided to work to set up a free trade zone including Arab Mediterranean countries which would also be open to other Arab countries," Moroccan Foreign Minister Mohamed Benaissa told journalists.
The agreement was signed by the four countries' foreign ministers at a ceremony in the southern city of Agadir. A Royal Palace spokesman said the accord was signed following an intiative by King Mohammed who attended the ceremony.
"Today's event is a first step towards setting up the Great Arab Free Trade zone. We are now in a new era ... ahead of the 2010 deadline for a free trade zone in the Euro-Mediterranean area," the spokesman said.
"We hope that our drive will not be limited only to accords. We hope it will translate into reality," the spokesman said.
Benaissa said the four-state free trade zone would "be ready in the short-term probably by the end of the year."
He compared the document announcing the free-trade zone between the four countries to Rome's 1958 Steel and Coal Pact, which eventually grew into the European Union.
Libyan Foreign Minister Mohammed Abderrahmane Chalgam told Reuters the accord would change the way Arab countries deal with their main trading partner, the European Union.
"When Arab countries negotiate with the EU, they talk to a bloc, while they look on Europeans as bits and pieces," he said.
ZONE TO INCLUDE TEN ARAB COUNTRIES
Benaissa added that a team of experts from the four countries would meet periodically to define the technicalities
of the project.
"The free trade zone will be extended to the six other Arab countries ," he said in reference to Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Syria, Lebanon and the Palestinian Authority.
The EU has conducted negotiations with 12 Mediterranean states as part of the so-called Barcelona process of cooperation between the EU and its southern neighbours.
The association agreements call for closer economic, political and social ties. The ultimate goal is to establish a Euro-Mediterranean free trade zone of 27 countries by 2010.
Tunisia, Morocco and Jordan have already signed association agreements with the EU. Egypt is due to sign its own agreement in Brussels in the last week of June.
"There are bilateral (free trade) accords between Arab countries, and we want to broaden these bilateral accords to a common space containing the ten Arab countries ," Egypt's Foreign Minister Amr Moussa said.
He said Tuesday's announcement would not be fruitless.
"My assessment of this is very positive. It's a crucial step in Arab economic actions. This starting point is important and practical," he said.
"This accord is also of high importance for Arab countries who have not yet signed an association accord with the European Union," Moussa added.
Now we can read of more recent developments in this direction
from the following website:
Commissioner Patten attends signature of Agadir Agreement
IP/04/256 - Brussels, 24 February 2004
On 25 February, Chris Patten, External Relations Commissioner, will attend the signing ceremony of the Free Trade Agreement between Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. This agreement, known as the Agadir Agreement, is a crucial step towards the envisaged creation of a Euro-Mediterranean free trade area by 2010. The Commission has been one of the main political supporters of this initiative since the Agadir Declaration was signed in May 2001 and it is also supporting it with a € 4 million programme funded under MEDA.
Speaking before his departure for Agadir, Commissioner Patten said: "I am delighted to witness the conclusion of the Agadir Agreement today. This agreement brings us closer to our joint objective of a Euro-Mediterranean free trade area by 2010. It will create much needed momentum for Mediterranean regional integration and foster private investment in the region. I strongly encourage other Euro-Med partners to join this agreement."
EU Trade Commissioner Pascal Lamy added: "Tearing down barriers to trade and investment is part of the strategic partnership between the EU and the Mediterranean region launched in 1995. Trade is a vital boost for the development of this region and contributes to stability. Today we are a step closer to our goal".
According to Archer, Jr, Gleason L, Daniel, Expositor's Bible Commentary, Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992) -
"The text clearly implies that this final phrase [the iron and the clay of Dan 2] will be marked by some sort of federation rather than by a powerful single realm" (page 47).
"The whole earth" [that Rome was to devour in Dan 2] (kol-'ar'a') refers, not to all known parts of the inhabited earth, but rather (as in general OT usage) to the entire territory of the Near and Middle East that in any way relates to the Holy Land. The word ar'a' (and its Hebrew equivalent, 'eres) does not necessarily mean "earth" in the sense of "the entire inhabited globe" but - depending on context - might mean a single country...or a larger geographical unit, such as "territory" or "region"... here it is clearly tantamount to the NT oikoumene (the portion of the world included within the Roman Empire, or possibly the regions adjacent to it)" , (page 93).
From the following website we read of the beginnings of the 10-king confederacy-
Egypt tries to forge consensus on holding Arab summit
SHARM EL SHEIKH (AFP) — Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak consulted here Wednesday with the leaders of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Jordan about moving an Arab summit to Egypt after the collapse of a planned gathering in Tunis .
However, diplomats said Mubarak, hosting the talks in Egypt's Red Sea resort of Sharm El Sheikh, would still have to contend with Tunisia's stiff opposition, even if he wins broad Arab support for Egypt as the new venue.
Crown Prince Abdullah, Saudi Arabia's de facto ruler, met first briefly with Mubarak at Sharm El Sheikh airport, during a stopover on his way to Austria, an AFP correspondent said.
Egyptian Information Minister Safwat Sherif said Mubarak and Prince Abdullah had stressed that " the Arab nation is going through a critical phase requiring total solidarity . "
The collapse of the summit in Tunis, which had been scheduled to open Monday, prompted widespread criticism that Arab leaders had failed to meet the challenge of standing up to Israel and embarking on political reform.
During a preparatory meeting of Arab foreign ministers in Tunis at the weekend, the Tunisian government said it was indefinitely postponing the summit because Arab countries rejected its proposals for democratic change.
Several Arab foreign ministers denied Tunisia's reason.
The Egyptian government daily Al Ahram said Wednesday that the summit will now be held in Egypt at the start of May.
The newspaper added that Mubarak's talks sought to "set a date for holding a meeting in Cairo of Arab foreign ministers to prepare for the summit."
An Egyptian official said, meanwhile, that Syrian President Bashar Assad, with whom Mubarak spoke over the telephone on Tuesday, would travel here on Thursday. Sudanese President Omar Bashir was also expected.
An Egyptian source said that, including Egypt, 10 of the 22 Arab League members had until now supported having the summit in Sharm El Sheikh. They were said to be Saudi Arabia, Syria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Jordan, Yemen, the Palestinian National Authority, the United Arab Emirates and Iraq.
Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali said the summit's postponement did not imply his government had abandoned its "right" to host the gathering.
"The holding of a summit in Egypt requires many efforts because Tunisia still has to be persuaded to take part in it," an Arab diplomat told AFP.
In line with Arab League statutes, "the summit must be held under Tunisia's chairmanship and it can only be held in the presence of President Ben Ali personally," the diplomat said. "It's either one thing or the other: Either Tunisia stops and agrees not to host the summit, or Egypt drops its proposal to hold it," the diplomat added.
Moroccan Foreign Minister Mohammed Benaissa said in Bahrain on Tuesday that "as long as Tunisia has not given up its right to host the summit on its territory, frankly I don't see how the summit can be transferred elsewhere."
His remarks appeared to limit his country's support for having the summit in Egypt.
Arab League chief Amr Musa, who met here Tuesday with King Hamad, was due to travel to Tunis on Friday as part of a trip that will also take him to Algiers and Rabat.
Musa will have "a difficult assignment," all the more so because the Egyptian president sharply criticised his Tunisian counterpart for his decision to postpone the summit, an Arab diplomat said.
Meanwhile, Qatar said it understood Tunisia's decision.
A statement following the weekly Cabinet said "ministers regret and understand the reasons that led to postponing the Arab summit," adding that the Cabinet "appreciates all efforts by the sisterly Tunisian republic to prepare for the summit.
"We hope Arab leaders can set a new date for the summit as soon as possible."
Middle East reform and an Arab response to a US initiative to spread democracy in the region were supposed to have topped the agenda of the Tunis meeting.
Although most Arab countries have opposed the US initiative, insisting that all reforms must come from within, Qatar has called for the US plan to at least be considered.
Thursday, April 1, 2004
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